IAU, Independentziaren Aldarrikapen Unilaterala

UDI, ingelesez

A unilateral declaration of independence (UDI) is a formal process leading to the establishment of a new state by a subnational entity which declares itself independent and sovereign without a formal agreement with the state from which it is seceding.

Unilateral declaration of independence – Wikipedia

Date Declared state Parent International recognition Notes
1776  United States  Great Britain Yes
1777 Vermont  Great Britain Yes Vermont signed a separate armistice with Britain in 1781 before the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown. Effective retroactive recognition by the United States was granted in 1791 when Vermont became the 14th state.
1816  Rio de la Plata  Spain Yes after the military victory Division and dismembration of the independent country. Paraguay secession. Brazil invaded Uruguay. Spain recognized the Argentine Independence in 1859
1821  Greece  Ottoman Empire Yes Intervention by France, Russia, and the United Kingdom in favour of Greece in the Greek War of Independence secured its independence in 1832.
1830  Belgium  United Netherlands Yes UDI (4 October 1830) recognized by the major European powers following the London Conference of 20 December 1830
1898  Philippines Spain Spain No Conquered by United States; became independent in 1946 by agreement
1912  Albania  Ottoman Empire Yes
1919  Irish Republic  United Kingdom Yes
1922  Kingdom of Egypt  United Kingdom Yes Unilateral grant of independence by the British government
1945  Indonesia  Netherlands Partial
1960  Katanga  Republic of the Congo No Breakaway Congolese province, secession forcibly ended by the United Nations Operation in the Congo in 1963.
1965  Rhodesia  United Kingdom No Self-governing British colony, unilaterally declared itself independent as Rhodesia in 1965, renamed Zimbabwe Rhodesia 1979, then gained international recognition as Zimbabwe in 1980.
1967  Anguilla  United Kingdom No Returned as a British Crown Colony in 1969.
1967  Biafra  Nigeria No Present-day Nigeria
1971  Bangladesh  Pakistan Yes
1975  Cabinda  Angola No Present-day Angola
1975  East Timor  Portugal No Shortly following the declaration of independence, the territory was invasion and annexation by Indonesia.[6][7] A referendum in 1999 led to eventual independence in 2002.[8]
1983  Northern Cyprus  Cyprus No Still claimed by Cyprus
1988  Palestine  Israel Partial Claims territories occupied by Israel since 1967
Israeli–Palestinian conflict and peace process still ongoing
See International recognition of the State of Palestine
1990  Transnistria  Moldova No Still claimed by Moldova
1990  Karakalpakstan  Uzbekistan No Incorporated into Uzbekistan in 1993.[9]
1991  Somaliland  Somalia No Still claimed by Somalia
1991  Croatia  Yugoslavia Yes Set off Croatian War of Independence
1991  Slovenia  Yugoslavia Yes Set off Ten-Days War
1992  Bosnia and Herzegovina  Yugoslavia Yes Set off Bosnian War
1991 Chechen Republic of Ichkeria Republic of Ichkeria  Russia No Present-day Chechen Republic, part of Russia
1991  Nagorno-Karabakh  Azerbaijan No Still claimed by Azerbaijan
1991  South Ossetia  Georgia No Still claimed by Georgia
1999  Abkhazia  Georgia No Still claimed by Georgia
2008  Kosovo  Serbia Partial Still claimed by Serbia
United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) resolution adopted on 8 October 2008 backed the request of Serbia to seek an International Court of Justice advisory opinion on Kosovo’s declaration of independence.[10] On 22 July 2010, the ICJ ruled that the declaration of independence of Kosovo “did not violate any applicable rule of international law”, because its authors, who were “representatives of the people of Kosovo”, were not bound by the Constitutional Framework (promulgated by UNMIK) or by UNSCR 1244 that is addressed only to United Nations Member States and organs of the United Nations.[11][12]
See International recognition of Kosovo
2014  Crimea  Ukraine No Annexed by Russia; still claimed by Ukraine
2017  Catalonia  Spain No Spain sovereignty remained unchanged

Legal aspects

The International Court of Justice, in a 2010 advisory opinion, declared that unilateral declarations of independence were not illegal under international law.[12]

[12] Accordance with international law of the unilateral declaration of independence in respect of Kosoco Archived 23 July 2010 at WebCite, International Court of Justice, 22 July 2010: https://www.webcitation.org/5rRB9e3bz?url=http://www.icj-cij.org/docket/files/141/15987.pdf


122. The Court has concluded above that the adoption of the declaration of independence of 17 February 2008 did not violate general international law, Security Council resolution 1244 (1999) or the Constitutional Framework. Consequently the adoption of that declaration did not violate any applicable rule of international law.


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