Ekonomia feministaz iruzkin batzuk

Everything You Need to Know About Modern Monetary Theory

Hasteko, galdera batzuk:

Zer ote da ekonomia ‘feminista’?

Mugimendu feministan murgiltzen direnek egiten dutena ote?

Ba ote dauka ekonomia feministak harremanik ekonomiari buruzko ohiko eskolekin? Zein?

Ezagutzen al dute mugimendu feministan aritzen direnek DTM (aka, Diru Teoria Monetarioa, Modern Money Theory ingelesez? Baiezkoan, zer pentsatzen dute DTMz?

Ekonomia feministan makroekonomia aztertzen ote da?

Zeintzuk dira haien ekonomiazko argitalpenik garrantzitsuenak?

Bueltaka ibili naiz eta ez dut orain arte erantzun zehatzik jaso…

Erantzunen zain nagoen bitartean, aipa ditzagun ekonomiari buruzko egia potolo batzuk:

(i) Badago teoria ekonomiko on bat DTM, aka, Diru Teoria Modernoa, MMT ingelesez

Warren Mosler-ek dioenez,

“Any school of thought that is not ‘MMT consistent’ is inapplicable

with regards to any actual economy”

DTM-rekin koherentea ez den edozein pentsamendu eskola

aplikaezina da gaur egungo edozein ekonomiari”

(Warren Mosler, 2013)

Hortaz, baldin eta ekonomia ‘feminista’ teoria bat bada, DTM-rekin koherentea izan beharko litzateke, bestela, hitzontzikeria hutsa dateke, ohiko teoria ekonomikoak (klasikoak, neoklasikoak, keynestarrak, neokeynestarrak eta abar luzea) diren antzera.

Lana Dell #MMT #RealProgressives‏ @organicfanatic5

(https://twitter.com/organicfanatic5/status/1143167674677174273)

Per @elliswinningham 6-24-17 “Anyone who says that MMT is just one of several competing ideologies, does not understand MMT nor the modern monetary economy in which we live and, therefore, does not know what they are talking about.”

2019 eka. 24

(ii) Badaude, egon, lege unibertsalak ekonomian

Unibertsalak direnez, nonahi eta edonorentzat dira baliagarriak.

Warren-en legea:

Mosler’s law states, “there is no financial crisis so deep that a sufficiently large fiscal adjustment cannot deal with it

Cameron Archibald‏ @MammothWhale

(https://twitter.com/MammothWhale/status/1123541152085487616)

The laws of economics are universal. They apply equally to all countries. Yet these laws suddenly turn to mush for unionists when talking about Scotland. The idea that Scotland can’t successfully run its own currency, like other modern progressive nations, is economic illiteracy.

(iii) Zer ote da dirua? Nondik dator? Zeinek sortzen du?

Ekonomia ‘feministak’ dirua erabiltzen duenez, aurreko galderei erantzunak eman behar dizkie, nahitaez!

Warren Mosler-ek behin eta berriz aipatzen duenez (azkenean hemen: Theory Vs. Practice: The Father of MMT on Policy, Profits, and Politics),

Kontua da jakitea nola funtziontzen duen sistema ekonomikoak, operatiboki.

Hitz gutxitan:

Dirua gobernuak sortzen du, banku zentralen bidez, teklatu baten bitartez (ez da behar ezer ‘inprimatu’). Kostua zero da. Altxor publikoaren laguntzaz diru hori erabiltzen da.

Gobernuak lehendabizi gastatu egiten du eta gero, eta soilik gero, zergak biltzen ditu.

Zergek ez dute ezer finantzatzen.

Zergak derrigorrezkoak dira.

Beraz, gobernuak kreatzen du langabezia, eta berak konpondu dezake arazo hori, lan bermeko (job guarantee) politikarekin.

(iv) Inflazioa eta aurrekontua

Stephanie Kelton @StephanieKelton uzt. 1

(https://twitter.com/StephanieKelton/status/1145689171887034368)

Here’s Greenspan explaining that because the government issues a non-convertible (no more gold standard) fiat currency, it faces an inflation constraint, not a budget constraint.

2019 uzt. 1

(v) Moneta politika eta politika fiskala

Moneta politika eta politika fiskala: bi eginkizun desberdin

Politika monetarioa eta fiskala (W. Mosler tartean)

Politika monetariak porrot egin du. Politika fiskala berriz leheneratu behar dugu

Warren Mosler: interes-tasa politikak ez du funtzionatzen

Gehigarriak:

M8

Martxoak 8: feminismoa nagusi

Hona hemen feminismoaren inguruan ibiltzen (egon) diren emakume batzuen lan interesgarriak, ekonomia dela eta:

(a) Aspaldiko erreferentzia:

Joan Robinson

Joan Robinson-en eskutitz irekia

(b) Gaur egungo ekonomialariak

Feminismo fiskala

Feminismoaz hitz bi

Zer da dirua? Dirua eta feminismoa. Elkarrizketa Ann Petiffor-i

Pavlina Tcherneva: DTM eta feminismoa

(c) Completing the Euro: The Euro Treasury and the Job Guarantee (Pavlina Tcherneva)

http://revistaeconomiacritica.org/sites/default/files/9-CruzHidalgo-Ehnst-Tcherneva_Completing-the-Euro.pd

Finally, the artificial fiscal restrictions of the Maastricht criteria have ensured that the public sector in many nation states struggles to provide basic public services, at a time when many people go without decent employment. The Job Guarantee is the coordinating mechanism that allows the unemployed to be reemployed and serve the public purpose. To begin addressing the seemingly intractable unemployment problems in Europe, policy must take the contract to the worker, so to speak, and implement direct, targeted and deliberate labor market interventions in the form of direct employment, training, and wraparound services to allow the structurally unemployed workers to begin transitioning to sustainable employment solutions.

(…)

CONCLUSION. A BOTTOM-UP APPROACH TO TRANSFORM EUROPE

The Euro turned twenty in 2019. It was to be expected that it would not work smoothly from the start, since establishing monetary systems usually takes decades or even centuries. Monetary regimes must then be adjusted constantly in order to cope with change. We propose that the Eurozone institutions be amended by a Job Guarantee in order to address the unemployment problem and a Euro Treasury in order to make sure that government spending is forthcoming on a permanent basis (without the interference of financial markets) and especially in times of economic crises. This would set the Eurozone on a path to full employment and price stability that is superior to current arrangements; with the replacement of the NAIRU with the NAIBER and, de facto, to promote convergence at the bottom substituting the disperse minimum wage with a Job Guarantee on equal terms for all European citizens. The creation of monetary sovereignty in the Eurozone as a Federal level is the result of a fiscal authority supported by the ECB. Such institutional innovation is compatible with the current mandate of the ECB, and eliminates the risk that the treasury bonds could have to establish the link with the currency issuer. Not being a mere customer of the currency, as member countries are, would allow the Euro Treasury to spend and introduce money into the economy without the need to finance the European Union budget by transferring money from member countries’ budget of the Eurozone. The dysfunctionality that implied that the fiscal and monetary arms of the Eurozone were separated is corrected as well, allowing a functional Treasury liable for filling the lack of spending that creates a level of mass unemployment unevenly distributed among the countries of the Eurozone. The Job Guarantee creates jobs directly, it does not go through any strategy of flooding the top ones with easy credit and expecting the drip to come down. It can be conceptualized as a bottom-up approach, different from the traditional Keynesian trickle-down economics. The Job Guarantee financed by the Euro Treasury for managing full employment and stability allowing, besides, the design of policies that focus on the economic and human impact of the policy instead of a specific budget result. Instead of the inefficiency of pushing the workforce to unemployment and discouragement, with the enormous economic and social costs that this “epidemic” of unemployment entails, we could mobilize the citizens through Job Guarantee programs to take care of the environment and the people, and everything we can imagine doing to improve our societies and that we do not do for a bad design of the monetary system. Increasing spending without raising taxes it is possible, but above all absolutely essential

PS: Ezagutzen ote duzu(e) ekonomia ‘feminista’ko teoriaren bat aurrekoekin ados dagoenik?

Esadazu(e), arren!

Kontakturako: josebafelix@outlook.es

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