Bill Mitchell-en artikulua: Governments do not need the savings of the rich, nor their taxes!1
Bi lan berezi daude ondoan ulertzeko zer dela eta gobernuek ez dituzten behar aberatsen aurrezkiak segurtatzeko gizarteak arrakasta lortzen duela:
John Maynard Keynes-en Chapter 24 of The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, 1936, Concluding Notes on the Social Philosophy towards which the General Theory might Lead.
Galdera: aberatsek zerga handiagoak ordaindu behar dituzte?2
Erantzuna: ordaindutako kopuru horiek hutsalak dira moneta-jaulkitzaile gobernu batek daukan ahalmenaren aurrean3.
Keynes-en Teoria Orokorra eta langabezia4.
Ruml eta zergapetzea7.
Ruml-en ustez hauxe da galdera zuzena:
… We must first ask: “Why does the government need to tax at all?”
Erantzuna argia da oso:
“The necessity for a government to tax in order to maintain both its independence and its solvency is true for state and local governments, but it is not true for a national government.8”
Jeremy Corbyn aberatsen zergapetzearen alde dago, gastu publikoa finantzatzearen, eta programa hori progresibotzat hartuz.
Bill Mitchell-ek Corbyn-en jarrera hori gogor kritikatu du9.
Izan ere, asmoa helburu publikoa da eta zergapetze politikak xede hori sostengu beharko luke; jomuga hori inoiz ez litzateke justifikatua izan beharko fondoak jasotzeko medio gisa, gobernuari gastatzearren ahalbidetzeko.
Beste aldetik Abba Lerner bere 1943ko lanean, Functional Finance and the Federal Debt delakoan gaur egungo edozein gobernuk erabili behar duen politika fiskalaz ari da.
Kasu, Mitchell-en hitzez,
“Abba Lerner considered a government should always use its policy capacity to achieve full employment and price stability and thought that fiscal or monetary policy rules based on conservative morality were not likely to help in that regard.”
(a) Bi lege erabiltzen ditu10
(b) Zergapetzearen afera ongi definituz11
(c) Defizit federala eta Banku Zentralaren rola12
(d) Inflazioa ulertu zuen13
(e) Jendearen heziketa14
Bere aldetik, Ruml-ek hauexek definitu zituen:
(i) Zerga federalen helburuak15
(ii) Gobernua eta zergapetzea16
(iii) Herrialdea, bizitza eta zergapetzearen rolak17
Beardsley Ruml oso garrantzitsua zen gobernu baten Banku Zentralaren erabilera definitzeko, Abba Lerner zen bezalaxe, biek DTMren oinarriak jarri zituzten.18
Gaur egungo testuinguruan, bien ekarpenak lagungarria dira oso Britainia Handiko Alderdi Laboristaren barruan dagoen lidergoari buruzko eztabaidan. Kasu, defizit ezabatzeko adierazpena premisa faltsuetan oinarritzen da eta alboratu beharko litzateke.
Fed, Treasury, Paul Krugman and Stephanie Kelton:
Guest post: The helicopter can drop money, gather bonds or just fly away
2 Ingelesez: “The progressive left would be advised to study his work and stop building political policy platforms on the claim that governments needs to make the rich pay their fair share of taxes so that adequate public services and infrastructure can be provided.”
3 Ingelesez: “The incomes and taxes paid by the rich are largely irrelevant to the capacity of a national, currency-issuing government to provide first-class public services and infrastructure.”
4 Ingelesez: “He said his work (the General Theory) (…) demonstrated categorically that mass unemployment was the result of a deficiency of total spending in the economy and that governments could easily use their fiscal capacities (spending and taxation) to redress that ill.”
5 Ingelesez: “… given (1) control of a central banking system and (2) an inconvertible currency, a sovereign national government is finally free of money worries and need no longer levy taxes for the purpose of providing itself with revenue. All taxation, therefore should be regarded from the point of view of social and economic consequences.”
7 Ingelesez: “Taxation is one of the limitations placed by government on the power of business to do what it pleases … issues in the taxation of business are not moral issues, but are questions of practical effect: What will get the best results? How should business be taxes so that business will make the greatest contribution to the common good?”
8 Honela segitzen du, ingelesez: “Two changes of the greatest consequence have occurred in the last twenty-five years which have substantially altered the position of the national state with respect to the financing of its current requirements.
The first of these changes is the gaining of vast new experience in the management of central banks.
The second change is the elimination, for domestic purposes, of the convertibility of the currency into gold. So, where the currency issued by the central bank “is not convertible into gold or into other commodity”, then Federal government “has final freedom from the money market in meeting its financial requirements.”
9 Ikus Mitchell-en ondoko lanak: Corbyn should stop saying he will eliminate the deficit, Correcting political ignorance and misperceptions, Jeremy Corbyn must break out of the neo-liberal framing eta British Labour must escape from its austerity lite prison.
10 Lehen legea: “Lerner’s “first law of Functional Finance”, recognises that the government responsibility should be to adjust its spending and taxation to ensure that all production is purchased and that this level of production generates jobs for all, such that the society cannot produce any more goods and services with its current available inputs.” Bigaren legea: “
11 Ingelesez: “… taxing is never to be undertaken merely because the government needs to make money payments … [it should] … be imposed only when it is desirable that the taxpayers shall have less money to spend.”
12 Ingelesez: “Lerner also understood (as Ruml did) that a federal deficit could be matched by central bank credits (the so-called “printing money” option).
The term “printing money” is not used in MMT because it is not descriptive of the actual process that underpins government spending. The term also invokes irrational emotional responses about hyperinflation with the Weimar Republic or Zimbabwe immediately entering the conversation, and reasoned debate then becomes impossible.”
13 Ingelesez: “This would not be inflationary if the sales boost allows firms to maintain their current levels of production and eliminate unsold inventory. If governments expanded the deficits beyond that point then inflation would threaten. But the inflation risk lies in the spending growth rate, not whether the government matches its deficit with debt issuance or new money.”
14 Ingelesez: “Progressives should first and foremost seek to educate the public about how the economy and money actually operate and what opportunities the government has to act on our behalf to advance our well-being.”
15 Ingelesez: “Federal taxes … servefour principle purposes of a social and economic character: 1. As an instrument of fiscal policy to help stabilize the purchasing power of the dollar; 2. To express public policy in the distribution of wealth and income …; 3. To express public policy in subsidizing or in penalizing various industries and economic groups; 4. To isolate and assess directly the costs of certain national benefits, such as highways and social security.”
16 Ingelesez: ”So the government might impose taxes: 1. To control inflation. 2. To redistribute purchasing power from the rich to the poor (high income to low income). 3. To alter the allocation of resources away from undesirable ends – such as tobacco taxes. 4. To provide some hypothecated public transparency for major projects/programs.”
17 Ingelesez: “This is what Ruml is on about when he said that the starting point are not “tax questions” but “questions as to the kind of country we want and the kind of life we want to lead”. He understood that a primary role for taxation was “the maintenance of a dollar which has a stable purchasing power … the avoidance of inflation”:
If federal taxes are insufficient or of the wrong kind, the purchasing power in the hands of the public is likely to be greater than the output of goods and services with which this purchasing demand can be satisfied.
18 Ingelesez: “Beardsley Ruml was an important contributor to our understanding of the opportunities available to a government which uses its central bank to advance public purpose. His insights – as the Chairman of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York – were consistent with the body of work that Abba Lerner provided under the guise of Functional Finance. Both economists contributed to the literature that has been woven into what we now refer to as MMT.”