Marx bere 200garren jaio-egunean

Albisteak:

(i) Zero euroa

Karl Marx’s birth city sells ‘zero-euro’ bills for his 200th birthday

(https://www.thelocal.de/20180418/karl-marxs-birth-city-sells-zero-euro-bills-for-his-200th-birthday)

 

Karl Marx’s birth city sells ‘zero-euro’ bills for his 200th birthday

(Valueless souvenir currency is being sold in Rheinland-Palatinate in honour of Marx’s 200th birthday. Photo: DPA)

Karl Marx was born on May 5th, 1818 in Trier in what is now Rheinland-Palatinate. Many cities in the surrounding area are using the upcoming anniversary to gain big capital from multiple Marx-themed memorabilia, including a ‘zero-euro’ bill introduced in March (…)

The German thinker is known for (…) works such as “Capital. A Critique of Modern Political Economy”. (…)

However, in celebrations of Marx’s birth, people are wasting no time attempting to gain as much ‘capital’ as possible.

In Chemnitz – a city that was called ‘Karl-Marx-Stadt’ during the GDR’s reign – there is a new beer with the name MarxStädter (Marx townspeople). In Trier, visitors can also purchase a Karl-Marx wine – a red one of course.

For those looking for a vessel for all of these Karl-Marx themed drinks, cups are also one of the items available for sale, with logos including Marx’s head, quotes from the famous philosopher, and red and green Marx traffic lights, which are also currently located in the city.

(Marx-themed rubber ducks are among the souvenirs available for purchase in Trier. Photo: DPA)

The real treasure in the Marx-themed merchandise, though, is a ‘zero-euro’ bill, which has been introduced to the international market by the Trier Tourism company for the last few months.

(…)

EuroSchein Souvenir‏ @EuroSouvenirDE

The 0€ Karl Marx 200 years in Trier This amazing collector commemorative banknote with most security features can be directly ordered online from #Trier the hometown of Karl Marx here http://www.trier-info.de/english/shop?shop_page=item_details&shop_item_id=143&shop_category_id=14 … #ZeroEuro #KarlMarx #Banknote #Germany #Unique #NullEuro #Geldschein

2018 mar. 21

By the end April, there are expected to be more than 20,000 copies of the Marx-inspired zero-euro currency, which are available for pre-purchase on their website.

For the city of Trier, this is proving to be a lucrative business: The ‘zero-euro’ bill costs three euros.

As to whether or not Marx, who was avidly anti-market capitalism, would have liked having his face attached to money, the Trier Tourism boss Norbert Käthler told newspaper T-Online that he does not like to say.

However, Käthler said that he thinks, “the idea of a zero-euro at least takes off in the direction given by Karl Marx.”

(ii) Marx jaio zeneko hiria

Walkers of the world unite: Marx traffic light installed in his hometown

(https://www.thelocal.de/20180321/pedestrians-of-the-world-unite)

Walkers of the world unite: Marx traffic light installed in his hometown

Karl Marx has begun lighting up his birthplace of Trier, appearing on traffic lights with outstretched arms and his token gruff beard.

The lights were installed on Monday, slightly shy of the 200th anniversary of Marx’s birth on May 5th, 1818. With a modern twist, they were installed with LED technology, with the figure of Marx stencilled in the light with lasers. 

It’s a beautiful symbol and the city is showing its flags for Marx,” said Trier mayor Wolfram Leibe, who commissioned the first light installation.

Another traffic light is slated to be installed before Easter weekend at the Karl Marx House, where the communist philosopher was born. (…)

(…)

The anniversary of Marx’s birth has not come without controversy, as Trier was criticized last year when it accepted a bronze statue of him from the communist Chinese government. The figure is set to be erected close to the traffic light on May 5th.

Oharra:

Hona hemen UEUko blog honetan Marx dela eta ipaturiko mugarri batzuk:

2006an, Marx hasiberrientzat

2010ean, Sorry, Marxek arrazoi zuen

2011n, M-M’ vs M-C-M’

2014an, Krisia nahita izan da induzitua

2016an, Marx irakurri behar dugu

2017an, Marxez haratago

Euskararen egoera eta geroa Ipar Euskal Herrian

Euskararen egoera eta geroa Ipar Euskal Herrian (1/2)

(http://eu.enbata.info/artikuluak/euskararen-egoera-eta-geroa-ipar-euskal-herrian/)

Battittu Coyos, Euskaltzaina

Artikulu honen helburua da lehenik laburzki erakustea zertan den euskararen egoera Ipar Euskal Herrian, bereziki botere publikoek egiten dutena eta egiten ez dutena azalduz. Bestetik, ikustea nola Euskal Hirigune Elkargo berriaren (Euskal Elkargoa) sartzea joko horretan, parada baliagarria izan daitekeen urrats garrantzitsu bat egiteko euskararen berpizteko bidean.

Bistan da, euskara bezalako hizkuntza guttitu baten aldeko hizkuntza politika neurtzen dugunean, botere publikoen ekintzak ez ditugu bakarrik aztertu behar, baina bai ere beste partaideenak: militanteenak eta elkarteenak (gobernamenduz kanpoko erakundeak), eragile sozio-ekonomiko-kulturalenak, hizkuntza-komunitateenak berak, etab. Hots, oro har, gizarte osoan hizkuntza minorizatu horren alde egiten den oro eta egiten ez dena ere. Gehi legezko testuingurua, hizkuntza arloko legeria edo ez den legeria.

Euskararen oraingo egoera zenbaki batzuen arabera

Gai horri interesatzen zaionak badaki euskararen egoera aski latza dela Ipar Euskal Herrian, nahiz hizkuntza politiko publiko bat garatu den, bereziki Euskararen Erakunde Publioaren bidez (EEP) 2006tik geroz. Ditugun zenbakiak ez dira onak.

VI. Inkesta Soziolinguistikoa 2016. Nahi ala ez, euskaldunen kopuru orokorra apaltzen ari, etengabe: 1996n euskaldunak biztanleriaren % 26,4 ziren eta 2016n %20,5. Euskararen eta euskarazko irakaskuntzari esker, argi ttipi bat piztu da belaunaldi gazteegan: 16-24 urte belaunaldian %18,9k badakite euskara, 25-34 urtekoan %15,7k eta 35-49 urtekoan 14,6k bakarrik. Baina belaunaldi hori da euskara gaitasun maila apalena duena eta, bai ere, euskara gutiago erabiltzen duena. Oro har, euskararen erabilera biztanleetarik %18,3 zen 2016n eta inkestaz inkesta (lehena 1996n egin zen) apaltzen ari da. Hor, hizkuntza guttitu baten ezagutzaren eta erabileraren arteko tarte famatua agertzen zaigu: erabilera ezagutza baino ttipiagoa da, beti.

Oro har, euskararen erabilera
biztanleetarik %18,3 zen 2016n
eta inkestaz inkesta
(lehena 1996n egin zen)
apaltzen ari da.

♠ “Kale-neurketa”. Hizkuntzen Erabileraren Euskal Herriko Kale-Neurketa bost urtetarik behin egiten da. Hiztunen kale-erabilera erreala du aztergai Euskal herroko karriketan eta entzuten den hizkuntza-erabilera biltzen eta aztertzen du. 2016n Ipar Euskal Herrian, erabileraren proportzioa % 5,3 zen. Beraz erabilera osoa baino zinez apalagoa. Baionan adibidez, erabilera ere apaldu da 2011tik, eta gaur egun, gaztelaniaren erabilera euskararena bezainbestekoa da.

Inkesta horien datuez gain, Frantziako hizkuntzen aldeko edo kontrako legezko kuadroa kontuan hartu behar da, euskararen egoera azaltzeko. Laburzki erran dezakegu frantses legeria desorekatua dela, frantsesaren aldekoa da, osoki. Konstituzioaren 2. artikuluak hori dio: “Errepublikaren hizkuntza frantsesa da” (1992). Horrek jurisprudentzia egiten du, Frantziako beste hizkuntzen aldeko proposamen denak oztopatzeko. Eta 2008an emendatu zen 75-1 artikuluak, “Eskualdeetako hizkuntzak Frantziako ondare dira”, Frantziako eskualdeetako hizkuntzei ez die deus baikorrik ekarri. Dakigun bezala, erabakiak legeriaren irakurketaren menpean daude eta Frantziako legeria irakurtzen duten legegizonak, zorigaitzez, ez dira batere frantsesa ez den Frantziako hizkuntzen alde!

Nire artikukuaren 2. zatian aipatuko ditut egoera hori gainditzeko egin ziren proposamen batzuk.

La politique publique en faveur de la langue basque a permis des avancées importantes en Pays Basque Nord, en particulier depuis la création de l’Office public de la langue basque en juillet 2004, ceci principalement dans le domaine de l’enseignement du et en basque.

Mais cette politique n’a pour l’instant pas de grand effet face à la diminution générale et continue de la connaissance et de l’usage du basque, même si la tendance semble s’inverser parmi les jeunes générations, du moins en ce qui concerne la connaissance, acquise à l’école alors que la transmission familiale végète.

Bien que rien n’interdise que tous les documents de tous types, officiels comme non officiels, soient produits en basque dès l’instant où ils le sont aussi en français pour ceux à caractère officiel, pourquoi sont-ils si rarement en basque ?

De même pour les interventions orales qui peuvent être traduites simultanément. Les moyens techniques et humains sont en place avec le réseau des techniciens de la langue ?

Manque de volonté politique ? Indifférence ou frein des services publics ?

Face à cette situation, il s’agit de faire des choix importants et forts. La création de la nouvelle Communauté d’agglomération Pays Basque pourrait en autoriser certains. Cet article en euskara avance quelques propositions réalisables et prometteuses.

Euskararen egoera eta geroa Ipar Euskal Herrian (2/2)

(http://eu.enbata.info/artikuluak/euskararen-egoera-eta-geroa-ipar-euskal-herrian-22/)

Euskararen biziarazteko eta gehiago ere indartzeko Ipar Euskal Herriko gizartean, hizkuntza horren bizindarraren testuingurua aztertzeko litzateke, sakonki.

Lerroalde honetan, azken hamar urte hauetan eginik izan ziren proposamen batzuk aipatuko ditugu.

Haien gauzatzeak arnas azkarra emanen liokete hemengo euskarari.

2007ko Paueko prefetaren gutuna

Pirinio Atlantikoetako prefetak, Euskararen Erakunde Publikoaren lehendakariarekin batera, 2007ko maiatzaren 11n izenpetu zuen gutuna proposamen baikorretan ezarriko nuke. Aipatzen dut: “Bizitza publikoan euskararen erabilpenari doakion arau eta legezko esparruari dagokionez, argitu nahi dugu euskara erabil daitekeela frantsesaren parean, dokumentu, zigilu eta komunikazio euskarri ofizial ezberdinetan, balio juridikoa frantsesezko bertsioek bakarrik dutelarik”.

Hots, administrazioetan, baina bai ere mundu pribatuan, ekoizten diren dokumentu eta euskarri denak euskaraz ager daitezke, baldintza horren pean, frantsesa hor izatea ere dokumentua ofiziala denean. Ene ustez, ohar horrek posibilitate anitz idekitzen ditu… nahiera hor baldin bada.

Zergatik, orain arte, euskara bakan agertzen da herriko etxeetako dokumentuetan, baina bai ere Ipar Euskal Herriko beste kolektibitate publikoenetan eta administrazioenetan?

Orain, 12 bateko euskara-teknikari sare bat badugu lurralde poloetan eta hiri nagusietan (Angelun salbu), itzultzaile profesional batzuk ere. Ebaluazioa eta gaitasunak baditugu. Zoin da orduan estakurua ez aitzinatzeko? Dirua? Ez da hori. Lehentasun arazoa da. Euskara botere publikoen lehentasunetan ote da? Hitzetan bai, ekintzetan ez dut uste.

2014ko Garapen Kontseiluko Euskara lanbatzordearen txostena

Duela guti, 2014-2020 Plan Kontratua prestatzeko, Garapen Kontseiluko Euskara lan-batzordeak txosten zinez interesgarria egin zuen. Euskararen egoera larria gainditzeko bi proposamen egiten zituen: irakaspenaren eskaintza orokortura joatea eta bizi sozialean, euskara “normalizatzeko”, Ipar Euskal Herria esperimentazio lurralde gisa hartzea. NOTRe legea errespetatuz,

Garapen Kontseilua Euskal Elkargo berriaren “Ekonomia eta Gizarte Kontseilu” mota bat baliatuko da eta parada izanen du bere proposamen horiek indarrean emaiteko. Ildo honetan ohar gaitezen ikastoletarik kanpo, murgiltze eredua garatzen ari dela amaeskola pribatu (18 eskola) eta publikoetan (15), lehen bi edo hiru urteak osoki euskaraz proposatuz. Hor ere, duela urte guti zerbait asmaezina zena badugu.

2016ko Euskaltzaindiaren eta Euskal Konfederazioaren aldarrikapena

2016ko azaroaren 19an, Euskaltzaindiak antolatzen zuen XXI. Jagon jardunaldian Baionan, Euskaltzaindiak eta Euskal Konfederazioak aldarrikapen bat egin zuten. Hiru puntu azaltzen zituzten: Euskal Hirigune Elkargoaren estatutuetan euskararen hizkuntza-eskumena hartzea (eginik da), baliabide aski paratzea eta hizkuntza politikarako aurrekontu propioa bideratzea (hori ere eginik da) eta, hirugarrena, Korsikan, Bretainian eta Ipar Katalunian egin bezala, Ipar Euskal Herrian ere euskarari nolabaiteko izaera ofiziala aitortzea. Azken puntu hau ere laster gauzatuko da.

Euskararen Erakunde Publikoa eta Euskal Elkargoa: asmatzeko partaidetza

EEP versus Euskal Elkargoa? EEP edota Euskal Elkargoa? Azkenean, Euskararen Erakunde Publikoa eta Euskal Elkargoa ez ditugu konparatzen ahal. Egitura publiko ezberdinak dira, beren legezko estatutua ez da berdina. Euskal Elkargoa bere deliberoen hartzean autonomoa da, EEP ez.

Orain, 12 bateko euskara-teknikari sare bat badugu
lurralde poloetan eta hiri nagusietan (Angelun salbu),
itzultzaile profesional batzuk ere.
Ebaluazioa eta gaitasunak baditugu.
Zoin da orduan estakurua ez aitzinatzeko?

Euskararen Erakunde Publikoa

2006tik geroz, Euskararen Erakunde Publikoak (EEP) eramaiten duen politikak aitzinamendu batzuk ekarri ditu, euskararen eta euskarazko irakaskuntzan bereziki. Baina bere metodologiak bere mugak erakusten ditu.

Iduritzen zait, adibidez, EEPren Aholku batzordea grabazio-ganbera (chambre d’enregistrement) delako bat bilakatu dela, urtean bi aldiz biltzen dena. Hastapenean, EEP eta euskalgintzaren arteko trukatzeko gunea zen. Orduan ikusmoldeek, elkarrekiko gogoetek EEPren politika hazten zuten. 2016ko agorrilean, Frantses estatuko zerbitzuek egin zuten EEPri buruzko txostenean ahulezia hori azpimarratu zuten: ikus 1.5.

Euskararen Erakunde Publikoa, Interes Publikoko Elkargo (IPE) bat da, eskubide publikoko pertsona juridikoa. Deliberatzeko mementoan, berresten dena Frantses estatuaren, Akitania Berriaren, Pirinio Atlantikoen eta sartu berri den Euskal Elkargoaren arteko traktazio eta konpromiso konplikatuen fruitua da.

Beste partaidea, Eusko Jaurlaritza, ahantzi gabe.

EEPn, Frantses estatuak hiru adar ditu. Alde batetik, Hezkuntza nazionala Bordeleko Akademiako errektorearen bidez, Kultur saileko eskualdeko zuzendaria (DRAC) Kultura ministeritzaren izenean bestetik eta, last but not least, Barneko ministeritza prefetaren presentziaren bidez.

Hots, erreza da ulertzea deliberoen hartzeko moldeak ez direla hain sinpleak. Halere, ikusmoldeak aldatu dira, norabide onean.

Oroitaraz dezadan, 2000 urteetako hastapenean, Eusko Jaurlaritzak Iparraldeko euskal elkarteei emaiten zizkien diru laguntzez, beste prefeta batek diru bidezko kolonizazioa salatzen zuela (c’est de la colonisation par l’argent)…

Euskal Elkargoa

Euskal Hirigune Elkargoa, legeak onartzen duen lurralde kolektibitate berri bat da (Code général des Collectivités territoriales, Loi Notre, etab.). Bere autonomia eta ahalmen propioak baditu (principe de libre administration, Frantses konstituzioaren 72. artikulua). Euskal Elkargoari legearen arabera loturik zaion Garapen Kontseiluak aholku batzordeko papera bere gain hartu beharko luke, ikerketa bereziak, proposamenak, ebaluazioak, etab. eginez.

Eta, bistan da, gure aztergaian, euskararen aldeko politikan, proposamenindar garrantzitsua bilaka daiteke.

Anartean, Euskal Elkargoak urrats zenbait egin ditu: 2017ko otsailaren 4an euskararen aldeko eskumena hartu du, herrietako eta herri elkargo ohietako eskumenak aztertu ditu, jurista batek ikerketa berezi bat eraman du, Frantziako legeriaren barne, euskararen eta okzitaniera gaskoiaren balizko ezagupen instituzional baten aztertzeko, halaber lurralde esperimentazioarekin.

Hots, fruituak ez badira oraino hor, lehen haziak lurrean daude…

******

Heziketa publikorako diru publikoa behar da

Non dago diru publikoa?

Hona hemen zantzu batzuk (in Bideragarria ote da euskal estatu independentea?)

Non dago dirua?

Europan, ba ote dago dirurik?

Bai! EBZ-n!

Hortaz, euroa erabiltzea da EH osorako proposamena.

(i) Alde ona: Baskongadetan, Nafarroan eta Iparraldean jadanik jendeak, enpresek eta erakunde publikoek euroa erabiltzen dute.

(ii) Alde txarra: Ez daukagu Banku Zentralik ezta Altxor Publikorik ere, baina haziendak bai, eta horiek oso garrantzitsuak izan daitezke gure etorkizun hurbilean.

Banku Zentrala Euskal Herrian?

Baskongadetan Espainiako BZren ‘adarra’ martxan jartzea litekeena da. Era berean, Nafarroan Espainiako BZren ‘adarra’ martxan jar liteke. Zergatik ez?

Frantziak ez du onartzen gure Iparraldea. Baina Baionako Merkataritza Ganbara hortxe dago.

Proposamen zehatz bat

Espainiako Banku Zentral horien ‘adarrak’ martxan jarriko diren bitartean (Euskal Herriko BZ lortzearren!), hona hemen proposamen zehatz bat: defizita BPGren %3tik % 8ra igotzea.

Mosler-ek dioenez, Europako Banku Zentralak (EBZ) euroak jaulki ditzake inolako arazorik gabe, behar diren beste euro eta teklatuaren bidez.

Euro multzo hori EBko estatuetan banatu ahal da, populazioaren arabera.

Proposamenaren oharrak (1)

Estatuek gastatzen dute EBZri esanez euro horiek banku kontu egokietan gehitzeko. Kreditu bat da besterik ez.

Arazoa da EBZk ezetza ematen badu. EBZk ezetza esateko mehatxua erabiltzen du austeritatea derrigortzeko

Proposamenaren oharrak (2)

Erregelak aldatu daitezke, Europar Batasuneko (EB) defizit publikoa handitu daiteke. Aipatu bezala,

defizita BPGren %3tik % 8ra igo daiteke.

Europako Banku Zentralak (EBZ) bermatu dezake gehikuntza hori esplizituki.

Ezezkoan, eta EBk ez badu onartzen aurreko berme hori, moneta propioa (…) martxan jartzea izan daiteke bigarren proposamena.

Zehazki

Hortaz, aipatutako banaketaren bidez, EBZ-tik Frantziara X euro joango lirateke eta Espainiara Y. X euro haietatik, eta Iparraldeko biztanleriaren arabera, Baionako Merkataritza Ganbarari w euro dagozkio.

Y euro haietatik, Baskongadetako hiru Diputazioei, biztanleriaren arabera, z euro dagozkie, eta v euro Nafarroako Diputazioari, hots, nafar Gobernuari.

Modu horretan, hala Iparraldean nola Hegoaldean dirua egongo litzateke arlo publikoko betebeharrak eta beharrizanak betetzeko: w + z + v euro.

Dirurik badago

Inbertsio publikoa finantzatzeko, enpresa txiki eta ertainerako diru laguntzak emateko, irakaskuntzan eta heziketan dirua sartzeko, gauza bera osasungintzan, eta, nola ez!, 62 urtetik aurrera, erretiro duinerako behar den beste euro erabiltzeko.

Baita lan bermeko programetan aritzeko ere.

Beraz, dirurik badago.

Non? EBZn ‘dago’. Baina diru hori ez da objektu bat. Dirua teklatuaren bidez sortu ahal du EBZk. Kostua zero da.

 

Nor da nor autodeterminazioaz?

Parraplas: http://www.arratia.net/eu-ES/berbategia/hiztegia/P/Orrialdeak/parraplas.aspx

Bilboko erdaran ere erabiltzen da.

Autodeterminazioa dela eta, hasierarako ikus EPI delakori ICEC delakora: EPI espaziotik datozen albisteak

Segida:

(i) Parraplas batek lezioak emanez, etengabe:

(a) Autodeterminazioa Parisen

(https://www.berria.eus/paperekoa/1834/022/001/2017-11-12/autodeterminazioa_parisen.htm)

Europako estatu zentralistenetakoak autodeterminazioa normaltasunez eztabaidatzen zuen artean, Espainiak katalanek bozkatutako gobernuko ministroak preso politiko egiten zituen Gaztelako espetxeetan.”

Eta Euskal Herrian?

Zertan dabil U.U. progrea?

(b) Korsikaren ordua

(https://www.berria.eus/paperekoa/1924/017/001/2017-12-10/korsikaren_ordua.htm)

Behin baino gehiagotan aipatu dugu, jakobinismo zorrotzenean ere, Espainiak ez bezala ukabila ireki eta egoerara egokitzeko gaitasuna eta lekuan lekukoaren arabera jokatzeko malgutasun aski izan duela Frantziako Errepublikak; urtebete baino gutxiago falta da, azken batean, bere menpeko lurralde baten autodeterminazio-erreferendum bat egiteko, hau da, Kaledonia Berrian.

Eta Euskal Herrian?

Mandanga hutsean!!!!

Hau dunk hau!

(c) Kosovo, hamar urte

(https://www.berria.eus/paperekoa/1933/023/001/2018-02-18/kosovo_hamar_urte.htm)

Zertan dabil U.U. progre hori?

(d) Estonia (eta gu)

https://www.berria.eus/paperekoa/2181/023/001/2018-03-04/estonia_eta_gu.htm

Han autodeterminazioa, eta hemen?

U.U.-k, hemengo beste askok bezala, autodeterminazioaren aldeko ICEC-internazionala baztertu eta errefusatu zuen

(…)

Azken hau puntakoa da:

(e) Sezesioak eta demokrazia

https://www.berria.eus/paperekoa/1935/021/001/2018-04-22/sezesioak_eta_demokrazia.htm

Kevin McKenna eskoziar kazetariak hala galdetzen zion Madrili The Guardian egunkarian berriki: zergatik tematu zarete indarkeriaz zapaltzen, erreferendumari jaramonik egin ez eta ez aitortzeko aukera izanda?”

échale sekulebedarra! (in Autodeterminazio-eskubidea (eta Tolin Eguzkitza))

Eta faltako zaiona…

Mon dieu!

(ii) Pertsona zentzudun batek bere ikuspegia emanez:

https://www.naiz.eus/eu/hemeroteca/7k/editions/7k_2018-04-22-07-00/hemeroteca_articles/ahora-sabemos-el-camino-de-espinas-que-tenemos-delante-pero-seguimos-esto-es-muy-importante

¿Qué significa el 1-O para Lluís Llach?

Es el día fundacional de la nueva República. Cuando todo esto pase, si Catalunya es un país libre, el 1 de octubre será una fecha fundacional de la República. Sin ninguna duda.”

Parekorik?

Utikan parraplas mota guztiak!

Astakeriak (GED-renak)

(i) Gure Esku Dago

(in https://gureeskudago.eus/files/artxiboa/gogoetak_elkarrekin.pdf)

Erabakitzeko eskubidea eta autodeterminazioa ez dira gauza bera: printzipio demokratikoaren adierazpenak dira biak, noski, baina lehena egikaritzeko ez da egoera koloniala edo zanpaketa frogatu behar, nahikoa da lurraldezko komunitate politiko batek bere borondate demokratikoa aske adierazteko gogoa izatea.”

Alegia,

GED mandangazale hutsa da eta gezurretan ari da1.

Gezurretan soilik ala nahita newspeak erabiltzen?

(ii) Nazio Batuen Erakundea eta autodeterminazio-eskubidea

La Cort Suprema del Quebec reconeix finalment que un referèndum d’independència es guanya amb el 50% dels vots més u

Els sobiranistes celebren la sentència com una victòria del dret d’autodeterminació després de disset anys d’espera

(https://www.vilaweb.cat/noticies/la-cort-suprema-del-quebec-reconeix-finalment-que-un-referendum-dindependencia-es-guanya-amb-el-50-dels-vots-mes-u/)

(iv) Brexit dela eta

Gogoratu ondokoa: Brexit eta autodeterminazioa

Beraz,

Badaezpada ere, adi eta kontuz manipulatzaileekin!

Badakizue newspeak zer den: deliberately ambiguous and contradictory language used to mislead and manipulate the public.


1 Gogoratu ondoko hau, GED-ri ere aplikatu ahal zaiona, noski: EHBildu: alderdi mandangazalea!?

Mendebaldeko euskara

(i) Toponimia:

Uhart (1040), Baracaldensis (1051), Sancti Georgii (1075)

… hay que esperar hasta el año 1040 para encontrar el nombre de una localidad precisa. Será el de Uhart, actual Ugarte, a orillas del río Galindo, afluente del Nervión, que aparece como asiento de una tenencia navarra, precisamente en el punto que ha sido históricamente embarcadero del mineral de hierro de los inmediatos yacimientos de Triano’. El emplazamiento de la tenencia, en relación con las del área comprendida entre el Asón, el Nervión y el valle de Ayala, hace pensar ya en el papel del hierro y en la circunstancia de que toda la zona constituye ya una cierta unidad geopolítica, aspecto que será visible durante siglos. Dentro de ella, y también a orillas del Nervión, como signo de su incipiente dinamismo histórico, aparecerá en 1051 un senior Lope Blascoz Baracaldensis, y, antes de 1075, el monasterio de San Jorge [Sancti Georgii] de Somorrostro, esto es, Santurce, cabecera de unas cuantas decanías y parroquias que el documento que lo menciona no concreta.

(in Espacio y poblamiento en la Vizcaya altomedieval)

Aipamenak:

…Senior Lope Vellacoz, et senior Galindo Vellacoz, cum Colindris et cum Huart,et Mena…”

(in historia de barakaldo (en sus textos) – Ezagutu Barakaldo)

senior Lope Blascoz (Vellacoz) Baracaldonensis confirmans,…”

(in historia de barakaldo (en sus textos) – Ezagutu Barakaldo)

Monasterium Sancti Georgii quod est in insula maris in Summo Rostro cum suis decaniis et parrochiis” (in Santurtzi (Donejurgi) eta Balparda)

(ii) Barakaldo

Euskera en Barakaldo

EUSKERA EN BARAKALDO: 1864

Tomado de ”Lutxana”, p.71

Señor Dn. Luis Luciano Bonaparte

Marquina 16, de mayo de 1864

Muy Señor mío y de toda mi consideración y aprecio: participo a S. A. que he averiguado con toda exactitud cuantas preguntas me hace para el mapa linguístico. En Baracaldo los Barrios de Regato y Retuerto son enteramente castellanos y es muy raro el que en estos habla bascuence: pero en los otros cuatro, que son Beurco, Burceña, Irauregui y Landaburu la gran mayoría es bascongada, aunque poseen ambas lenguas y aun algunos muy jóvenes no saben bascuence. En el barrio de San Vicente la mayoría es castellana, aunque también hay bastantes bascongados. (…)

EUSKERA EN BARAKALDO: 1866

Tomado de ”Lutxana”, p.73

Señor Dn. Luis Luciano Bonaparte

Convento de Bermeo 23, de Abril de 1866

Mui Señor mio, y de mi mayor consideración y aprecio: participo a S. A. que he estado de intento en Baracaldo, y he averiguado que en los barrios de Landaburu, y Beurco se habla mucho bascuence y en el de San Vicente también algo: pero en el barrio de Retuerto y demás apenas se conoce. He hablado con muchos yo mismo en Bascuence. Como los jóvenes, por lo regular, hablan castellano este idioma es el que domina.

(…)

Páselo S. A. bien, y mande cuando guste a su aff. ° at. ° segº. serv. R Q. S.M.B”.

Fr. Jose Antonio de Uriarte”

(in historia de barakaldo (en sus textos) – Ezagutu Barakaldo)

Barakaldoko euskara, 1930

Hilaria Careaga, hasta 1930 (in Testimonio del euskera | Ezagutu Barakaldo)

Una de las últimas hablantes del euskera barakaldés fue Hilaria Careaga, nacida en Beurko en la

década de 1840 y fallecida en 1930.

Gehigarriak:

Enkarterriko kronika

Euskal Herria, Enkarterri, Ibar Ezkerra, Santurtzi, Balparda

Santurtzi, Portugalete, Somorrostro (Muskiz), Barakaldo, Enkarterri: In Insula Maris

Autodeterminazio-eskubidea (Portugal eta Quebec)

Portugale-n:

Roberto Fernández Santos‏ @rfernsan

(https://twitter.com/rfernsan/status/986322177074126848)

En Tele5 acaban de decir que los partidos independentistas en Portugal “directamente no existirían” porque la ley no lo permite. El art. 7.3 de la Constitución Portuguesa reconoce el derecho a la autodeterminación de los pueblos y su independencia, pero quien te manipula es TV3.

2018 api. 17

Quebec-en:

La Cort Suprema del Quebec reconeix finalment que un referèndum d’independència es guanya amb el 50% dels vots més u

Els sobiranistes celebren la sentència com una victòria del dret d’autodeterminació després de disset anys d’espera

(https://www.vilaweb.cat/noticies/la-cort-suprema-del-quebec-reconeix-finalment-que-un-referendum-dindependencia-es-guanya-amb-el-50-dels-vots-mes-u/)

Gogoratu ondokoa: Brexit eta autodeterminazioa

Zertan ari gara Euskal Herrian? Gezurretan, gezur borobiletan!

Que no hay dinero? Ez dagoela dirurik?

Eduardo Garzón: ¿Cómo que no hay dinero, Rajoy? Basta de mentiras

http://eduardogarzon.net/como-que-no-hay-dinero-rajoy-basta-de-mentiras/#more-2881

Artículo escrito originalmente en eldiario.es el 28 de febrero de 2018

La semana pasada el presidente del gobierno, Mariano Rajoy, aseguró que no hay dinero para subir las pensiones. Aludir a una falta de dinero es el típico mantra que utiliza la derecha para calmar toda aspiración de lograr mayor justicia social. Es la forma más efectiva de evadir el debate: si no hay dinero para cambiar las cosas entonces no es necesario aportar argumentos para convencer al interlocutor de que no hay que cambiar las cosas. La insuficiencia del dinero zanja cualquier debate, y ¡qué casualidad! Siempre lo hace a favor del statu quo y de los poderosos.

Mienten. Consciente o inconscientemente mienten. Este manido mensaje de la falta de dinero es absolutamente falso desde la primera hasta la última letra. El dinero se inventó para facilitar las relaciones económicas, pero al contrario de lo que la gente suele creer erróneamente, el dinero no es algo físico; es una ficción del ser humano, al igual que lo son los números o los kilogramos, y por lo tanto no tiene sentido hablar de su escasez o de su abundancia. ¿Alguien se imagina a un profesor de matemáticas diciendo que no puede dar clase porque no tiene suficientes números? ¿O a un frutero diciendo que no puede pesar la fruta porque no tiene suficientes kilogramos? No tiene sentido, ¿verdad? Pues tampoco lo tiene que un presidente del gobierno diga no tener suficiente dinero para aumentar las pensiones (o para cualquier otra cosa).

Sólo el 3% de todo el dinero que existe en el mundo son monedas y billetes, algo físico, mientras que el restante 97% son simplemente anotaciones electrónicas en cuentas bancarias, algo que no podemos tocar ni oler, al igual que ocurre con los números o los kilogramos. Esto es algo que hoy día podemos comprobar fácilmente cuando compramos cualquier producto con una tarjeta de crédito: lo único que ocurre en la transacción es que los numeritos de nuestra cuenta bancaria disminuyen y los de la cuenta bancaria del vendedor aumentan. No ocurre nada más. Espero que nadie piense que en ese momento sale un furgón blindado lleno de monedas, billetes u oro, desde el banco del comprador hasta el banco del vendedor, porque evidentemente no es eso lo que ocurre.

Cuando el Estado paga una pensión a un pensionista tampoco hay movimiento de billetes o metales por ningún lado: lo único que ocurre es que los numeritos de la cuenta del Estado disminuyen y los de la cuenta del pensionista aumentan. Creer que ocurre alguna otra cosa es síntoma de que no se entiende bien la naturaleza del dinero.

Antes del año 1971, debido a los compromisos internacionales alcanzados en Breton Woods, los Estados no podían crear todo el dinero que quisieran porque tenían que vincular su fabricación a la cantidad de oro que tuvieran (o a la cantidad de dólares, que se vinculaban al oro). Como las reservas de oro eran limitadas, también lo tenía que ser el dinero creado. Pero desde agosto de ese año dicho compromiso dejó de existir, y todos los países que crean dinero pueden hacerlo sin ningún tipo de límite. Nada impide que los Estados puedan crear todo el dinero que quieran, y además lo hacen de una forma muy sencilla: pulsando teclas informáticas. De hecho, el Banco Central Europeo, organismo que emite los euros, lleva mucho tiempo creando entre 60.000 y 80.000 millones de euros cada mes. Y que nadie piense que está imprimiendo billetes o acuñando monedas: simplemente hace aumentar los numeritos de las cuentas bancarias de los receptores. Claro que estos receptores no son empresas y familias que lo están pasando mal, sino entidades financieras (y también otras grandes empresas productivas) a las que se les inyecta el dinero para ver si se deciden así a prestarlo a las familias y empresas, haciendo negocio por el camino, claro. Así es como funciona la Eurozona: está prohibido que el Banco Central Europeo pueda crear dinero para transferírselo a los Estados para financiar sus gastos e inversiones (como las pensiones, la educación o la sanidad) –que es exactamente lo que ocurría hasta 1994 en nuestro país con el Banco de España– pero sí puede crear dinero y dárselo a los bancos para que estos puedan otorgar créditos y así ganen dinero. ¡Bienvenidos al chiringuito financiero de la zona euro!

Así que menos cuentos, señor Rajoy. ¿No hay dinero para aumentar las pensiones pero sí para inundar con miles de millones de euros a los bancos? Explíquele eso a la gente. Explíqueles que el dinero se crea a simple voluntad a través de teclados informáticos pero que sólo se esta haciendo para reflotar el negocio financiero, no para mejorar la vida de los pensionistas o del resto de la mayoría social. Explíqueles por qué mientras la mitad de las pensiones públicas son de menos de 800 euros mensuales el número 2 del BBVA se ha jubilado (con 56 años) con una pensión de 4.900 euros ¡al día! Explíqueles que nuestro sistema económico está pensado para que los de arriba sigan disfrutando de todo tipo de lujos mientras los de abajo se conforman con migajas, al mismo tiempo que se les hace creer que así tiene que ser siempre. Explíqueles que esto no es un problema técnico sino de voluntad política y de redistribución de la renta y la riqueza. Sólo así podrá hacer honor a la verdad y abandonar del todo esas burdas mentiras que utiliza para no aumentar las pensiones.

Euskaraz askoz hobeto😉

Zenbait gezur gizarte segurantzari buruz

Gizarte segurantza: falaziak nonahi

Gizarte segurantza euro-gunean

Pentsioak direla eta, bi hitz gehiago

Diru Teoria Modernoa (DTM) korronte nagusi bilakatzeko bidean

Bill Mitchell-en On the path to MMT becoming mainstream

(http://bilbo.economicoutlook.net/blog/?p=39132#more-39132)

(i) Sarrera1

(ii) Historia pixka bat2

(iii) Trenak Britainian Handian3

(iv) Ideia berriak eta DTM: QE, Brexit, Jeremy Corbyn4

(v) Ingalaterrako Bankua: BZ5

(vi) Datuak eta QE-ren ondorio ahulak6

(vii) The Guardian eta DTM7

(viii) Aurrerapenak8

(ix) Eztabaida ala iluntasuna? Martin Höpner, berriz9

(Ikus beheko iruzkina 9. oharrari buruz)

(x) FEDEko Alan Greenspan eta Ben Bernanke10

Ondorioak:

(1) The UK Guardian Editorial is a sign of progress. One small step as they say.

(2) But for years we were ignored – “you old foggy fool! You can’t do it! You can’t do it”.

(3)Then we were ridiculed – “you old fool! You can’t stop it! You can’t stop it! You can’t stop it!”

(4) and whenever, we might become mainstream.


Ingelesez: “Over the last few years, it is clear that Modern Monetary Theory (MMT) is achieving a higher profile and the attacks are starting to come thick and fast. I see these attacks as being a positive development because it demonstrates that recognition has been achieved and a threat to mainstream ideas is now perceived by those who desire to hang on to the statu quo. Hostility and attack is a stage in the process of a new set of ideas becoming accepted, ultimately. Clearly, some new interventions never receive acceptance because they are proven to be flawed in one way or another. But I doubt the body of work that is now known as MMT will be discarded quite so easily given my assessment that is is coherent, logically consistent and grounded in a strong evidence base. As part of this evolution there are now lots of what I call ‘sort of’ contributions coming from mainstream commentators. One of the ways in which mainstreamers save face is to claim they ‘knew it all along’ and that the existing body of practice can easily accommodate what might be considered ‘nuances’ or ‘special cases’. We are seeing that more now, with the more progressive mainstream economists claiming there is nothing ‘new’ about MMT that it is just what they knew anyway. Even though that approach is disingenuous it is part of the evolution towards acceptance. People have positions to protect. These ‘sort of’ contributions demonstrate a sort of half-way mentality – a growing awareness of MMT but with a deep resistance to its implications. A good example is the UK Guardian’s editorial (April 15, 2018) – The Guardian view on QE: the economy needs more than a magic money tree.”

Ingelesez: “As a little historical aside – about stages in acceptance of new ‘things’ (ideas) – at the Third Biennial Convention of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America in 1919, held in Baltimore, Nicholas Klein, a delegate from Cincinnati was given the floor to “say some few words of encouragement to the Schloss Brothers strikers of Baltimore, who had been on “strike for five consecutive weeks”.

He spoke to the delegates about the strength of worker organisation and the importance of the Union.

His contribution is recorded in the Proceedings of the Third Biennial Convention of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America (Baltimore, Maryland, May 13-18, 1919).

To illustrate his point, he finished with a excellent example of how social perceptions and opinions change when new ideas emerge that challenge the cognitive dissonance of the mainstream.

Here is what he said (pages 51-53):

I close by telling you the story, because I think it explains better than anything else, at this time, the great possibilities which can come to labor. There is a story told about the making of the first railway. There was an old man, it is said, whose name was Stevenson, who made the first locomotive. You know, just like in the labor movement they said locomotives were impossible. You had to have horses or cattle to pull a train; that nothing would go without something being attached to it. There would be no locomotion.

And when old man Stevenson proposed a train – something to be run without the aid of horses or oxen, he was ridiculed. One day a test was made, and they laid two pieces of wood and upon these two pieces of wood they placed some thin sheets of metal, and upon that crude arrangement was placed the first locomotive.

And it is said in the story that thousands of people were out to see the first test of that locomotive, and of course the people all shouted, and pointed to their heads, and said the man was crazy, and they said the locomotive was out of the question; it was impossible, and the crowd yelled out: “you old foggy fool! You can’t do it! You can’t do it” and the same everywhere. The old man was in the cab, and somebody fired a pistol and the signal was given. He pulled the throttle open and the engine shot out, and in their amazement the crowd, not knowing how to answer to that argument, yelled out: you old fool! You can’t stop it! You can’t stop it! You can’t stop it!” (Applause.)

And my friends, in this story you have a history of this entire movement. First they ignore you. Then they ridicule you. And then they attack you and want to burn you. And then they build monuments to.

And that is what is going to happen to the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America.”

Ingelesez: “Relatedly, the idea of locomotives replacing horses was the subject of vigorous debate in the coal mining districts of Britain in the early part of the C19th.

This historical account from a book published in 1857 by Samuel Smiles – The Life of George Stephenson and of his son Robert Stephenson (Harper Brothers, New York) is interesting.

In Chapter VII George Stephenson’s Farther Improvement in the Locomotive — Robert Stephenson as Viewer’s Apprentice and Student – Smiles discusses the resistance in local communities to George Stephenson’s locomotives.

We read that:

the voice of the press as well as of the public was decidedly against the “new-fangled roads.” … [the idea that] … steam-carriages … were to supersede the use of horses entirely, and travel at a rate almost equal to the speed of the fleetest horse!” … was too chimerical to be entertained, and the suggested railway was accordingly rejected as impracticable.

The “Tyne Mercury” was equally decided against railways. “What person,” asked the editor (November 16th, 1824), “would ever think of paying any thing to be conveyed from Hexham to Newcastle in something like a coal-wagon, upon a dreary wagon-way, and to be dragged for the greater part of the distance by a ROARING STEAM-ENGINE!” The very notion of such a thing was preposterous, ridiculous, and utterly absurd.

It is almost comical to read these historical accounts now.”

Ingelesez: “But Groupthink, vested interests and all the related sources of resistance has been a powerful force holding back the acceptance of new ideas that are superior to the old.

The media has long been an important vehicle in giving voice to these vested interests.

Which brings me to the Guardian Editorial cited in the Introduction.

The UK Guardian maintains the myth that:

Quantitative easing succeeded in staving off disaster …

I will come back to that.

Their latest tack is that Brexit will open up new possibilities for Britain once it escapes the provisions of the Lisbon Treaty that ban central bank bailouts.

The Editor notes that Jeremy Corbyn’s early suggestion (2015) for a ‘Peoples’ QE’ was forbidden under EU membership but would become possible once Britain leaves the EU.

They don’t endorse Brexit but just “observe that the quiver of the argument against printing money might lose an arrow or two if we leave the EU”.

I wrote about Peoples’ QE in this blog post – PQE is sound economics but is not in the QE family (August 15, 2015).

The Editor observes, however, that Lisbon Treaty notwithstanding:

In fact, the Bank of England, while the UK was in the EU, did print hundreds of billions of pounds to avoid economic disaster. At the push of a button, the Bank conjured up £435bn to buy up gilts – government bonds – and exchange them for bank deposits. On the national balance sheet this sum is listed as debt, but it is not in the strictest sense because it is not owed to anyone. Turns out there is a magic money tree.

Well, in fact, that is not a factual statement.”

Ingelesez: “Even a simple excursion to the – Bank of England – demonstrates the propaganda element in the Guardian’s claim.

The Bank states clearly:

The Bank of England can purchase assets to stimulate the economy. This is known as quantitative easing

Quantitative easing does not involve literally printing more money. Instead, we create new money digitally

Quantitative easing is when a central bank like the Bank of England creates new money electronically to make large purchases of assets. We make these purchases from the private sector … The market for government bonds is large, so we can buy large quantities of them fairly quickly.

The purchases are of such a scale that they push up the price of assets, lowering the yields (the return) on them. This encourages those selling these assets to us to use the money they received from the sale to buy assets with a higher yield instead, like company shares and bonds.

As more of these other assets are bought, their prices rise because of the increased demand. This pushes down on yields in general. The companies that have issued these bonds or shares benefit from cheaper borrowing because of these lower yields, encouraging them to spend and invest more …

No printing presses involved.

And no direct spending effect.

Whether it was successful “in staving off disaster” as the Guardian claims is another matter.”

Ingelesez: “The data suggests otherwise.

The recovery really didn’t come until George Osborne curtailed his obsessive austerity pursuit and allowed the deficit to grow in 2012.

If QE had have done anything significant for the real economy, then we would have expected business investment to have picked up.

The following graph shows it didn’t do anything remarkable between 2010 and 2017. In historical terms the Business Investment ratio was around 12.6 per cent in 1998. It is now at 9.3 per cent and showing no signs of returning to the previous higher levels.

(Ikus irudia.)

And the Guardian even recognises why, even though it wanted readers to believe that QE had done a remarkable job of saving the UK from permanent recession.

We read:

Having sold their gilts back to the Bank, investors bought up company stocks and bonds or property – sending prices to record highs – instead of creating new activity in the real economy, higher growth and jobs … The result was that the injection of money caused a stock-market boom in the financial economy, but on the real economy – the target of the policy – it had little effect.

Which makes one wonder about the editorial process at the Guardian, particularly when it comes to the so-called Editorial Comment, given the sub-title of the Editorial was that QE “succeeded in staving off disaster”.

No it didn’t. It did very little in fact. It certainly bestowed massive capital gains on holders of the financial assets that the Bank of England purchased and, in that sense, increased inequality, given the skewed nature of ownership of those assets.

But in terms of the real economy – as the Guardian concedes, “it had little effect”.

Ingelesez: “Which then brings the Editorial to the ‘sort of’ MMT narrative.

1. “Government spending, however it is financed, needs to be the main agent of recovery” – that is, fiscal policy should be the primary macroeconomic policy tool to ensure the economy maintains growth and avoids recessions.

The ‘sort of’ tag relates here to the “however it is financed” qualifier. This is mainstream resistance to the reality constraining the full exposition of what the UK government can actually do, and which was hinted at in the opening paragraph of this Editorial (when it recognised that governments can simply spend its own currency without ‘financing’).

The Editorial notes that an effective use of fiscal policy was resisted because government “ministers were ideologically resistant to” deploying it.

The Guardian then suggests what Jeremy Corbyn should do if it wanted to be imaginative:

Its plans could have seen the central bank instructed to hand over funds to a state body so it could buy services and goods without issuing debt.

The MMT solution.

Run deficits to advance well-being and only reign them if with higher taxation if the economy hits full capacity and in is danger of accelerating inflation.

The Editor sees “two objections to this” proposal:

one is the Bank would have to pay interest on excess reserves, which would inevitably build up; or let its target rate fall to zero. Both occur today and are managed. The second is hyperinflation. Yet all spending – government or private – carries an inflation risk.

Pure MMT being espoused there.

Note the language being used – “all spending – government or private – carries an inflation risk”.

If you do a string search of my writing you will find those exact words. Pure MMT. Mainstream macroeconomists never make that essential point when talking about fiscal deficits.

They leave the readers with the impression that government deficit spending is a special category of inflation risk. It is not and the Guardian editor clearly understands that.

And in relation to the inflation risk, we get some more pure MMT from the Guardian editor:

A future chancellor could commit to using fiscal policy to make sure nominal spending keeps pace with the real capacity of the economy to produce goods and services – and withdraw the stimulus if annualised GDP growth exceeded … [that capacity].

Again, if you do a string search of my writing you will find those exact words.

This is not the way a mainstream macroeconomists talks or writes.

This way of constructing the inflation problem is pure MMT.

And in conclusion, the Guardian recognises that the UK growth is languishing and in that vein:

The lack of demand in the economy needs urgent attention. Enlarging the economy may need bigger thoughts than politicians have so far entertained.

Exactly, what the MMT economists, such as yours truly, have been saying for years now, as advanced economies have been languishing in a state of excess capacity and elevated levels of unemployment.”

Ingelesez: “The point is that now we have mainstream editorials using MMT language and constructs, which I think is progress.

There remains resistance for sure. But think about that speech made in 1918 to the delegates at the Third Biennial Convention of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America.

The arguments and criticisms are coming up with different points now.

We are debating inflation rather than insolvency.

We are recognising the central bank can control yields and only considering the impacts of that.

You won’t find those sorts of insights in a mainstream macroeconomics textbook yet, but time is ticking. Our next textbook is due out in November 2018 and I hope it will eventually form part of the mainstream teaching curriculum in world universities.

Part of the on-going resistance to MMT ideas is the rather odd claim that the population are not capable of absorbing its implications without engaging in destructive behaviour.

This came up again from our German-friends at Makroskop who appear intent on just repeating the same assertions about the political impractability of basing policy on the principles of MMT over and over again.

I dealt with the first entreaty in this three part series:

1. My response to a German critic of MMT – Part 1 (March 26, 2018).

2. My response to a German critic of MMT – Part 2 (March 28, 2018).

3. My response to a German critic of MMT – Part 3 (April 3, 2018).

I guessed that annoyed the gang at Makroskop because I note that the Makroskop team are making rather odd associations that they seemingly intend to use to discredit the ideas of MMT proponents such as myself.”

(Ikus beheko iruzkina 9. oharrari buruz)

10 Ingelesez: “Remember, former US Federal Reserve Bank Governor Alan Greenspan’s famous admission on NBC’s Meet the Press (August 7, 2011) relating to a potential US debt downgrade:

The United States can pay any debt it has because we can always print money to do that. So there is zero probability of default.

Then the next governor, Ben Bernanke, a more modern man altogether because he knows the process doesn’t involve a printing press, was asked by the US 60 Minutes program by Scott Pelley (December 3, 2010) about QE and the growing fear that it would unleash an inflationary spiral.

The transcript included this Q&A (Source):

Pelley: Many people believe that could be highly inflationary. That it’s a dangerous thing to try.

Bernanke: Well, this fear of inflation, I think is way overstated. We’ve looked at it very, very carefully. We’ve analyzed it every which way. One myth that’s out there is that what we’re doing is printing money. We’re not printing money. The amount of currency in circulation is not changing. The money supply is not changing in any significant way. What we’re doing is lowing interest rates by buying Treasury securities. And by lowering interest rates, we hope to stimulate the economy to grow faster. So, the trick is to find the appropriate moment when to begin to unwind this policy. And that’s what we’re gonna do.

Okay, no printing presses.

QE lowers interest rates only.

Lower interest rates may or may not stimulate spending depending on a host of other things including the state of confidence, unemployment dynamics etc.

We also might recall an earlier interview between Scott Pelley and Ben Bernanke on the US 60 Minutes program (March 12, 2009) – Ben Bernanke’s Greatest Challenge .

The interview is largely a litany of mainstream statements but at one point Bernanke provided a very clear statement about how governments that issue their own currency actually spend.

At around the 8 minute mark of the segment, Bernanke starts talking about how the Federal Reserve Bank (the US central bank) conducts its ‘operations’ (in this case, how it conducts government spending).

Interviewer Pelley asks Bernanke (Source):

Is that tax money that the Fed is spending?

Bernanke replied, reflecting a good understanding of what we call central bank operations (the way the Federal Reserve interacts with the member banks):

It’s not tax money. The banks have accounts with the Fed, much the same way that you have an account in a commercial bank. So, to lend to a bank, we simply use the computer to mark up the size of the account that they have with the Fed. It’s much more akin to printing money than it is to borrowing.

That is, the US government spends by creating money out of ‘thin air’.

And we have now lived through nearly a decade of major shifts in government policy.

Large deficits to stimulate growth – working.

Massive expansions of central bank balance sheets (QE) in the UK, Japan, Europe, the US – all accompanied by the sort of claims that Martin Höpner is making (although he does it more politely) that hyperinflation would result and currencies would be trashed.

We have observed none of those things happening.

And has our behaviour changed dramatically? Not in any unpredictable (broadly) ways.

When unemployment started rising we increased our saving ratios – as you would expect.

When the fiscal stimulii started to work – we loosened our spending again – but modestly.

Investment has been slow to pick up because it is asymmetric due to the irreversibility of capital formation. All as expected.

Borrowing didn’t go through the roof at zero interest rates. Why not? Because credit worthy borrowers were cautious in the milieu of high unemployment and previous credit binges.

And, of course, the Japanese have been going through this process for a quarter of a century. They have seen credit rating agencies embarrassed as they downgrade Japanese government debt to junk status only for the public to observe nothing of consequence follows.

They have seen on-going deficits, low to zero interest rates, low inflation (bordering at times on disinflation), high gross public debt levels.

I haven’t seen major behavioural shifts in the economic behaviour of Japanese residents.

In fact, as I noted in my three-part response to Martin Höpner, destructive non-government behaviour accompanied the intensification of the myth narrative about fiscal deficits and the promotion of fiscal surpluses.

We had credit binges, criminal behaviour by our financial sector, and then crisis.

Ordu estrak? Ez mila esker!

Testuingurua: 1970eko hamarkadaren hasieran Bilbon eta Ibar Ezkerrean, oro har, ordu estrak egin behar ziren, nahitaez, eta denok pozik, baten bat izan ezik.

Etsenplurik nabarmenenak, ondokoetan azaltzen direnak: https://es.scribd.com/doc/57138679/ANAITASUNA-1972-1973-eta-1975

Segur aski, espainiar estatu osoan kanporatutako lehen ingeniaria, ordu estrak ez egiteagatik:

Kaleratzea OCINCOtik: https://www.scribd.com/doc/269745710/Kaleratzea-OCINCOtik

Orain gauza bertsua egingo nuke, zeren ordu estrak egitea, ematea, langileriaren aurkako neurri zuzena baita, aspaldian izan zen bezalaxe.

Ordu estrekin ez da konpontzen gizateriaren kontrako krimenik handiena, langabezia. Alderantziz, baizik!
https://www.giornalettismo.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/paolo-barnard-mmt-memmt-paolo-barnard-3-770x543.jpg

Langabeziari aurre egiteko, lan bermeko programak behar dira, diru publikoarekin ordainduak: Lan bermeaz (job guarantee), hitz batzuk

Non dago dirua?

Ondoko linketan daude zantzu batzuk (baita pentsio duinak ordaintzearren ere, noski):

Non dago dirua?

Ez ote dago dirurik?

Non dago dirua Europar Batasunean?

Dirurik ez dagoela?

Ez dagoela dirurik?

Diruari buruzkoak, gogoratzekoak

Ea ikasiko dugun!

Mandanga: from nowhere to nowhere, newspeak tartean

(i) Newspeak, nonahi:

Newspeak (eguneratua)

(ii) Albistea edo iritzia: Nuevos retos para el derecho a decidir, alegia, existitzen ez den mandagatik inora ere ez doan ihesa…

News from nowhere. The road to newspeak (Ondorioak)

(iii) Baina orain, demokraziaren bidez (sic):

Inoiz ez da berandu…

(iii) Alta, badago beste ildo bat, lurperatu nahi izan dutena, orain dela 25 urte bezalaxe (Herrien Liga eta Bai Independentziari! lekukoak) edo orain dela urte gutxi batzuk antzera (lekuko hurbilak, EPI eta ICEC direlakoak)

Ildo berria:

(v) Bai ,Euskal Errepublika da gure helburua:

Katalan batzuk Orion

Goierri aitzindari: Bejondeizuela!

(v) Eta horretarako tresna bakarra autodeterminazio eskubidea da, ez inongo mandagarik:

Autodeterminazio-eskubidea1, ez mandangarik…

Ezkerkeriarik2 gabe eta DTMz baliatuz3, tartean lan bermeko4 programa egoki bat aplikatuz.