Independentzia aldarrikatzeko akordioa

Katalunieraz: CDC i ERC signen un pre-acord per a la proclamació de la independència

http://www.vilaweb.cat/noticia/4238276/20150330/cdc-erc-signen-pre-acord-proclamacio-independencia.html

Ingelesez: CDC and ERC signed a preliminary agreement for the proclamation of independence

http://english.vilaweb.cat/politics/cdc-and-erc-signed-a-preliminary-agreement-for-the-proclamation-of-Independence


Andorra

Informazioa: http://eu.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andorra

Moneta: euroa (banku zentralik gabe)

Hizkuntza ofiziala: kataluniera

Indar armaturik gabe

Albistea: Andorra on the brink of Europe’s next banking crisis1

BPA2

Banku Zentralik gabe3

Albistea: Meet Andorra: Europe’s Next Failed State4

Andorra, Zipre, Islandia5

Standard & Poor’s tasatze agentziak dioenez,

a) Andorrako finantza sektorearen arriskua handitu da

b) Banku Zentralik ezak, edo azken mailegu emailerik ezak, arriskuak areagotzen ditu

Euro erabiltzaileak (Andorra, Kosovo, Monako, San Marino, Vatikanoa, Montenegro,…) ez dira euro jaulkitzaileak (moneta subiranodunak). Hortaz, goian aipatutako ‘arazoak’ areagotzen dira…, jadanik blog honetan ikusi dugun moduan Kataluniaz nahiz Kosovoz aritu garenean.


 

2 Ingelesez: “On Tuesday March 10, the US Treasury Department’s financial crime body, FinCEN, accused Banca Privada d’Andorra (BPA), the country’s fourth-largest bank, of money-laundering. The authority said “corrupt high–level managers and weak anti–money-laundering controls have made BPA an easy vehicle for third–party money-launderers”.”

3 Ingelesez: “Andorra’s exposures to its banks provoke echoes of Iceland and Cyprus – both of which suffered painful economic crises when their lenders fell into trouble. But unlike Cyprus, which received a last-minute bail-out, Andorra has no central bank to act as a lender of last resort: if its banks go under, it goes under.”

5 Ingelesez: “When Cyprus was “templated” its banks assets were only 8 times bigger than the economy and Iceland’s troubles hit at 10xAndorra’s banks have assets under management 17 times bigger than the economy, and the sector accounts for a fifth of GDP...”

Alemaniako esportazioak

GDP, profits, German exports1.


Goiko irudian ikus daitekeen moduan, Alemaniak Europar Batasunari (EBri) egindako esportazioak beherantz doaz. 2007tik EBrako esportazioak jaitsi dira, historia ofizialak esaten duenaren aurka, zeinak euroa istorio arrakastatsua dela dioen.

Horrez gain, eta dakigun bezala, eurogunean dagoen afera barneko eskariari dagokio.


Grezia prestatzen ari da irteteko…

Albistea: Greece prepares to leave1.

Gauza bat garbi geratu da, alegia, Syriza ez dela ‘erradikala’…

Gaur arte, gainontzeko Europak zer egingo lukeena asmatzen saiatu izan da Syriza.

Noski, Grezia, Syriza-ren bitartez, eurogunea uzteko prestatzen ari da. Eta urrats horren ondorioak etengabe, gelditu gabe, eztabaidatzen ari dira. Zoroak izango lirateke horrelako eztabaidak edukiko ez balituzte. Eta, jakina, punturen batean erreferendum bat egongo da.

Caveat: Syriza-k bere boto emaileengandik agindua jaso behar du berak egiten duenerako. Momentuz, ez dauka agindurik hurrengo ekitaldietarako.

Syriza-k mugimenduak egingo ditu harik eta Greziako jendea prest egongo den euroguneko kidetasunaz erreferendumean boto emateko.

Alexis Tsipras-ek Greziako jendeari adierazi behar diona hauxe da: eurogunean egoten segitzeko eta denbora berean austeritatearekin bukatzeko agindua agindu hutsa, hutsala da, zeren euroguneak horri uko egiten dion.

Bihurgune puntuan dago Grezia.

Statis Kouvelakis Syriza-ko komite zentraleko kideak dioenez2

It should be clear, however, that these moves would bring about a dynamic that would breach fundamental constraints of the monetary union and would inevitably lead to the exit from it.”

Baina Kouvelakis-ek arrazonatzen du Syriza-ren gaur egungo aginduak segurtatzen ez duen ikuspuntu batetik.

Tsipras eta Varoufakis-ek Bruselan eta Berlinen amore emango balute, orduan erabaki hori ere jendearen aurrean jarri beharko litzateke botatzeko, zeren horrek austeritatearen jarraipena izango bailitzateke. Eta hori ez da agindua.

Era berean, liderrek erabakitzen badute erabaki bakarra eurogunetik irtetea dela eta negoziaketa gehiago itxaropenik gabekoa dela zeren Europak ez baitu ezer gehiagorik onartuko, hori ere botoen bidez erabaki behar da.

Beraz, ez okertu: “of course they’re preparing to leave.”


Liburua braillez (bukaera)

Finantza kapitalismoa braillez: http://www.unibertsitatea.net/blogak/heterodoxia/2014/07/12/finantza-kapitalismoa-braillez/

Itsuak dira ala itsututa daude?: http://www.unibertsitatea.net/blogak/heterodoxia/2014/10/06/itsuak-dira-ala-itsututa-daude/

Liburua braillez: http://www.unibertsitatea.net/blogak/heterodoxia/2014/11/11/liburua-braillez/

E-posten trukaketa:

Date: Fri, 27 Feb 2015
Subject: Zure liburua braillez
From:
To:
josebafelix@

Kaixo Joseba:

Badaukagu zure liburua braillez, beraz nora esaten badidazu, bidaliko dizut.

Esango diguzu zer deritzozun jasotzen duzunean.

Nahi duzun arte, ondo-ondo ibili!

2015-02-27. <josebafelix@:

Mila esker, Inma.

Hona nire helbidea:

(…)

Mila esker, berriz.

Ongi izan.

joseba

Date: Mon, 2 Mar 2015
Subject: Re: Zure liburua braillez
From:
To:
josebafelix@

Ederto: ahal bezain laster bidaliko dut.

Ondo ibili!

2015-03-27. <josebafelix@:

Egun on Inma,

Jaso dut zuen liburua.

Txundituta nago!

Egin dizkidaten oparien artean hori da hoberenetarikoa, hoberena ez bada.

Zenbat lan egin duzuen!

Mila esker nitaz gogoratzeagatik eta nahi duzuen arte.

Ez adiorik.

joseba

Date: Fri, 27 Mar 2015
Subject: Re: Zure liburua braillez
From:
To: josebafelix@

Asko pozten gara horrelako ilusioa egiteaz. Zuri berriro ere eskerrik asko laguntzagatik.

Hurrengo  arte, ondo bizi!


 

Quantitative Easing (QE) inozoentzat

Hasiera: zertan datzan QE

Mosler-en hitzez, QE zerga bat da1

Blog honetan QEz aritu gara:

  1. EBko krisia eta QE2

  2. Randall Wray-k Paul Krugman-ez eta QEz3

  3. Europak ekaitz intelektual bat behar du4

  4. EBn norabide aldaketa behar da5

Hemen ere:

  1. QE plazebo bat da6

  2. QE EBrako: irtenbidea?7
  3. QE: Mosler eta Draghi, berriz…8

QE inozoentzat9.

Albistea (Dec 16, 2008)10.

Mezua: QE dela eta, banku zentralek bankugintza sistema diru kopuruz betetzen dute maileguak bultzatzearren11.

Mosler-en hitzak: Mailegatzea ez dute erreserbek mugatzen. Erreserba ‘extrek’ ez dute ezer aguntzen mailegatzeari. Eskari agregatua da afera12.

Mezua: Hori egin ohi dute interes tasen jaistea ez denean efektiboa, haiek zero edo zerotik hurbil daudelako13.

M-ren hitzak: Benetakoa.

Mezua: Banku zentralek eskudirua gehitzen dute tituluen kantitate handiak erosiz bankuen balantze orrietatik14

M-ren hitzak: Bai.

Mezua: …beraie emanez diru berri asko mailegatzeko15.

M-ren hitzak: Ez, jadanik eta beti infinitu diru daukate mailegatzearren16.

Mezua: Japoniak erreminta hori erabili zuen hamarkada honetan deflazioari aurre egiteko eta ekonomia pizteko17.

M-ren hitzak: Orduan ere ez zuen lan egin. Politika fiskala erabili zuten, nahiz eta ez defizit nahikoarekin18.


10 Ingelesez:“NEW YORK (Reuters) – The Federal Reserve on Tuesday cut its target for overnight interest rates to zero to 0.25 percent, bringing it closer to unconventional action to lift the economy out of a year-long recession.”

11 Ingelesez: “…they’re instituting quantitative easing on a fairly large scale…” “Under quantitative easing, central banks flood the banking system with masses of money to promote lending.”

12 Ingelesez: “Central banks exchange non or low interest bearing assets- reserve balances- for longer term higher yielding securities. Since lending is in no case ‘reserve constrained’, the ‘extra’ reserves do nothing for lending. The purchase of the longer dated securities results in lower longer term rates than otherwise. The lower borrowing rates may or may not alter aggregate demand. The lower rates for savers definitely lowers aggregate demand.”

13 Ingelesez: “They usually do this when lowering official interest rates no longer is effective because they already are at or near zero.”

14 Ingelesez: “The central banks add cash by buying up large quantities of securities — government debt, mortgages, commercial loans, even stocks — from banks’ balance sheets,…”

15 Ingelesez: “… giving them plenty of new money to lend.

16 Ingelesez: “No, they already and always have infinite ‘money to lend’. Available funds are not a constraint for the banking system. The constraints are regulated asset quality and capital requirements that are expressed in the rates bank charge. Not the total quantity of funds available.”

17 Ingelesez: “It is a tool used by Japan earlier this decade to combat deflation and stimulate the economy.

18 Ingelesez: “Didn’t work then either. It was fiscal policy that kept them afloat, though not a large enough deficit to sustain output at full employment levels.

Erreferenduma?

Zurrumurruak:

Lehena: Greziak eurogunean segitzeko erreferenduma1 egingo du.

Bigarrena: Yanis Varoufakis-en dimisioa2.

Egitateak:

  1. Bundesbank-eko presidenteak ez du ELA luzatu nahi3

  2. There’s “not much time left” to reach solution on Greece

  3. Finantza obligazioak4

Hortaz, soilik zurrumurruak ala bihar-etziko egitateak?

Erreferendumaren aukera, Syriza, zalantzak eta etorkizun hurbila…5

1 Ikus Will Greece Call A Referendum On Euro Membership?: http://www.zerohedge.com/news/2015-03-27/will-greece-call-referendum-euro-membership.

2 Ingelesez: ““… reports that the resignation of Greek FinMin Yanis Varoufakis was imminent.”

3 Ingelesez: “Weidmann ‘doesn’t buy’ argument Greek debt insurmountable. Bundesbank President Jens Weidmann says he’s against expanding emergency liquidity for Greece, Focus magazine reported.”

4 Ingelesez: “At the end of March it will have to mobilize an estimated €1.7bn for salary and pension payments. On 9 April, it faces IMF repayments of SDR360.45m/€457.8m. On 14 and 17 April, respectively, it must roll over T-bills worth €1.4bn and €1.0bn. Most of these are held by Greek banks, but a proportion is reportedly owned by foreign investors, who might not want to stay involved in the T-bill trade; this could make the rolling-over more difficult.”

5 Ingelesez: “One of the potential options Syriza might eventually consider could be a popular referendum on Eurozone membership – a step that would obviously involve great risks and uncertainties. But if, presumably, a majority of Greek voters were to endorse Greece’s ongoing membership in the monetary union, Syriza could then argue that this will require the government to make unpopular concessions to the “institutions”. If this scenario were to materialize, we believe a referendum might be called in late April or early May, once the end-April deadline nears or expires.

Syrizaren denbora bukatuz doa…

Syriza, Grezia, sozialdemokrazia, Keynes, monetarismoa, ezkerraren porrota, …

Bill Mitchell-en Syriza must stay left of the line – more is at stake than Greece1.

Syriza-k Europako agenda progresiboak bukatu ahal ditu.2

Europako ezkerraren porrota ez zen hasi Finantza Krisi Globalarekin, askoz lehenago baizik3.

Sozialdemokraziak askatasun politikoa eta ekonomikoa batu nahi zituen, merkatu ekonomia erreformatuz eta nolabaiteko ekonomia mistoa bultzatuz.

Mitchell-ek sozialdemokraziaren bilakaera historikoa analizatu du, Ton Noternams-en liburua aipatzen duela (Money, Markets, and the State, 2000)4.

Historia horrek ez dauka inolako zer ikusirik Declan Costello Europako Komisiokoak Greziako gobernuari bidalitako eskutitz gogorrarekin5.

Costello-ren hitzen aurka, Mitchell-ek 2008an idatzitako liburua gogoratzen du, enplegu osoa aurrekontu defizit egokiarekin lortu daitekeela aipatuz6.

Historikoki, fokapen sozialdemokratak ez zuen iraun. Zer dela eta? Langileen aurkako korporazio botere dela eta7. Akademiako intelligentsiak lagundu zuen eraso horretan8. Beranduago inflazioa9 zen arazoa eta dena ongi borobiltzeko monetarismoa10 ekarri zuten plazara.

Errealitatea, alta, bestelakoa zen eta, izatez, izaten segitzen du: afera ez da eskaria demasia dagoela, alderantziz baizik11.

Politika ekonomiko neoliberal horien ondorioz, langabezia azaldu zen, gero azpi-langabezia ere. Horixe da gaur egun bizi dugun mundua.

Alderdi sozialdemokratek ideologia neoliberal berria bereganatu zuten. 1970eko eta 1980ko hamarkadetan, ideologia aldaketaren ereduak nonahi daude: Frantzian François Miterrand, Espainia una, grande y libre-n Psoe, soilik gure herriari dagozkion aldaketak aipatzeko.

Mitchell-ek dionez, aipaturiko aldaketa horiek Syriza-n ere azaldu daiteke. Izan ere, “… Syriza (…) runs the danger of damaging any hope of a return to progressive, social democratic policy regimes for years to come.”

Hortaz, denbora kontua da: denbora eta erabaki egokien kontua…

Erabaki zuzen eta egokiak hartzen laguntzeko, Stathis Kouvelakis-ek artikulu interesgarri bat idatzi du  Syrizaz12.

Hona hemen, Kouvelakis-en punturik garrantzitsuenak:

  1. Syrizako politikariek mass median ‘garaipena’ aldarrikatu dute13.

  2. Errealitateak ukatu du arrakastazko jarrera hori14.

Hona Kouvelakis-en hipotesi nagusia:

The plan — or rather, the range of strategies — currently being considered by the Europeans can be summed up as follows: either trigger in the short term the collapse of the Syriza government, or, and this appears to be the prevailing option, drag it into a new strategic retreat in April, which will prepare the ground for a final capitulation in June.”

Syriza atrapatuta dago tranpa hilgarri batean, daukan aukera bakarra martxan jartzen ez badu: irteera, Grexit.

Blog honetan aipatu dugun moduan, Europako ezkerrari, baita Euskal Herriko ezkerrari ere (edozein delarik berau), gertatzen zaio gauza bera: tranpa bertsuan egotea15.

Honela bukatzen du Mitchell-ek:

Unless Syriza changes the internal Greek dialogue to educate the people about the exit option and the opportunities it has if it restores its currency sovereignty and leads the nation out of the austerity trap, it will be squeezed by the Eurogroup into becoming just another ‘social democratic’ vehicle for austerity and income distribution from wages to profits.

It will thus either collapse from internal tensions or become a servant of the austerians. Either way, its earlier progressive narrative will be discredited and the neo-liberal TINA mentality will be reinforced.”

Bere hitzei indarra emateko, Kouvelakis-en aipua ekartzen du Mitchell-ek:

…the most reasonable proposal is a negotiated exit from the euro, which would be combined with a writing-off of the major part of the debt, and would free both sides from the negative effects of a forced Grexit and from the endless preoccupation with an unsustainable Greek debt.

Denbora ez dago Syrizaren alde… agortuz doa.


2 Ingelesez: “… unless things change rather dramatically in Greece, Syriza may actually end up only undermining progressive agendas in Europe as they self-destruct under the iron fist of the Troika.”

3 Ingelesez: “The demise of the left in Europe didn’t begin with the onset of the GFC. One might actually posit that the GFC was the culmination of a steady move to the right by political parties everywhere, which allowed ridiculous labour and financial market deregulation to occur and fiscal policy to be eschewed.”

4 Ingelesez: “Notermans says (p.1):

The social democratic vision of society envisaged a world in which human beings control their circumstances rather than being controlled by them. One essential characteristic of such a society would be that it guaranteed its members a decent livelihood. Rather than large sections of the population being condemned to inactivity by recurring economic crisis, all those able to take up employment should have the possibility of doing so. Those who temporarily or permanently lack the ability to provide for themselves should be able to count on the solidarity of society to provide them with the means for a decent livelihood. The inability to work should not be a condemnation to live a marginalized existence.”

5 Ikus The Irish Times article (March 20, 2015), EU mandarin Declan Costello faces Greek wrath over ‘ultimatums’ letter. Halaber, ikus Paul Mason kazetariaren artikulua: Don’t pass new anti-poverty law, commission tells Greece.

6 Ingelesez: “In my 2008 book with Joan Muysken – Full Employment abandoned – the Post World War II consensus in terms of what we called the Full Employment Framework. We juxtaposed it with the neo-liberal replacement, which we termed the Full Employability Framework.

The Great Depression taught us that, in the absence of government intervention, capitalist economies are prone to lengthy periods of unemployment, the Second World War experience proved that full employment could be maintained with appropriate use of budget deficits.”

7 Ingelesez: “The answer is that the framework did not break down because it failed but was usurped by a growing resurgence of ideas that had been simmering for all the Post World War II period.

The corporate sector, the monied class, were continually struggling to shift the pendulum back in their favour as full employment and welfare arrangements clearly reduced income and wealth inequality and gave workers some power in the labour market.”

8 Ingelesez: “Capital funded academics to produce a plethora of material which alleged to show how dangerous trade unions were or how wage rises would kill growth etc. Nothing much has changed except during the full employment period with growing real wages (in line with productivity) it was hard to mount a case that disaster was about to strike.”

9 Ingelesez: “All that changed when the Arabs retaliated against Zionist aggression and pushed up the oil prices in 1973.

The outbreak of hostilities in the Middle East in October 1973 (the 1973 Arab Israeli War) was accompanied by the oil embargo imposed by the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).

A few days later, on 16 October, the Arab nations increased the price of oil by 17 per cent and indicated they would cut production by 25 per cent as part of a leveraged retaliation against the US President’s decision to provide arms to Israel.

The price of oil rose by around three times within eight months.

That political event was exploited by the growing literature from conservative economists about the dangers of the welfare state and full employment – they were arguing that it would result in accelerating inflation.

The economic models themselves are spurious (and nonsensical) but it was the serendipitous outbreak of inflation associated with the oil crisis that allowed them to dupe governments (and the voters) into believing that the inflation was the direct result of the full employment and wage equity.

10 Ingelesez: “Monetarism (championed by Milton Friedman and his colleagues) displaced Keynesian thinking as the dominant economic policy paradigm.”

11 Ingelesez: “The reality was the problem was (and remains) that the coincidence of unemployment and rising inflation in the 1970s was not a problem of excess demand. The fact is that that the price instability came from the supply side as the OPEC sheiks drove up oil prices.

The policy response to cut aggregate demand and thus increase unemployment was exactly the wrong response. The Monetarists exploited that policy error and claimed that it demonstrated a categorical failure of the Keynesian approach.

Any Keynesian remedies proposed to reduce unemployment were met with derision from the bulk of the profession who had embraced Monetarism and its policy implications. They claimed that the economy would always tend back to a given natural rate of unemployment (which was associated with stable inflation), no matter what had happened to the economy over the course of time.”

12 Ikus Jacobin aldizkaria (March 23, 2015), Time Isn’t on Our Side.

13 Ingelesez: “Syriza politicians are engaging in “media spin” to proclaim a “victory” after the February 20 negotiations with the Eurogroup.”

14 Ingelesez: “But even without going into a detailed analysis of the commitments undertaken by the Greek government while signing the agreement, it’s clear that it didn’t take long before reality refuted the main points of the preceding argument it became clear that the government’s hands were tied … As a consequence, during the first month of the left government, a period of unprecedented legislative inaction prevailed, a vivid reflection of the long-prepared “iron cage” in which the European Union (EU) had imposed on the undisciplined Greeks … In essence, this means that the redistributive measures that could provide genuine relief to the working class and other popular strata, and would allow Syriza to stabilize its social alliances, are deferred indefinitely.”

15 Mitchell-en hitzak: “...the obsession by the educated left in Europe with the concept of ‘a grand Europe’ as an expression of modernity and sophistication.

They cannot see that the way they have acceded to the creation of this ‘Europe’ is the antithesis of sophistication. It has created increased poverty, mass unemployment and spawned a revival of populist fascist-type political movements.

Bankugintza publikoa eta Hyman Minsky

R. Wray-ren Public Banking and Boom Bust Boom1.

TB elkarrizketa (ingelesez eta espainieraz)2: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=949JLYr2L90&feature=youtu.be&a

Minsky-z egindako dokumentala: Boom Bust Boom

Trailerra: Monty Python’s Terry Jones’ documentary Boom Bust Boom with a Hyman Minsky puppet.

Iruzkina: Paul Mason-en To Move Beyond Boom and Bust, We Need a New Theory of Capitalism3.